 # 1.04 Multiplication and division of integers

Lesson

## Multiplying integers

We have looked at how to multiply whole numbers when they are positive. Now let's look at what happens when negative integers are included in questions. Remember the product is the answer when two numbers are multiplied together.

#### Exploration

The applet below allows you to select two integers to multiply by using the sliders to change the value and the check boxes to change the sign.

• Blue tiles represent positive integers
• Red tiles represent negative integers
• The product is shown as an array

Guiding questions

1. What is the sign of the product of two positive integers?
2. If you are looking at the product $3\times\left(-4\right)$3×(4), how many tiles are in $3$3 groups of $-4$4 tiles?
3. What is the sign of the product of one positive and one negative integer?

4. Is the product of $3\times\left(-4\right)$3×(4) the same as $-4\times3$4×3? Check this for more products.

5. What is the sign of the product of two negative integers?

### Conclusions

To get comfortable with multiplying integers, we can use tools like the applet above to help us identify the patterns. Unlike adding and subtracting integers where we can use the number line or counters, multiplication comes down to looking at the sign of factors.

Product of two integers

Preciously, we have seen that the product of two positive integers is a positive integer The product or quotient of a positive integer and a negative integer is a negative integer. The product of two negative integers is a positive integer. If we are working with integers, we just need to determine what the sign will be and then we can multiply the absolute values of the integers as we already know how to do.

#### Worked examples

##### question 1

Evaluate: $-4\times5$4×5

Think: We know that $4\times5=20$4×5=20, so we just need to determine what the sign will be. We have the product of negative integer and a positive integer, so the product will be negative.

Do:

 $-4\times5$−4×5 $=$= $-20$−20

##### question 2

Evaluate: $-7\times\left(-5\right)$7×(5)

Think: We know that $7\times5=35$7×5=35, so we just need to determine what the sign will be. We have the product of two negative integers, so the product will be positive.

Do:

 $-7\times\left(-5\right)$−7×(−5) $=$= $35$35

#### Practice questions

##### Question 3

Evaluate: $8\times\left(-12\right)$8×(12)

##### Question 4

Evaluate: $-9\times\left(-11\right)$9×(11)

## Dividing integers

The same principals that help us to multiply integers also apply to divide. Check that the rules for multiplication also work for division.

Quotient of two integers

We have seen that the quotient of two positive integers is a positive integer The quotient of a positive integer and a negative integer is a negative integer. The quotient of two negative integers is a positive integer. #### Worked example

##### question 5

Evaluate: $48\div\left(-6\right)$48÷​(6)

Think: We know that $48\div6=8$48÷​6=8, so we just need to determine what the sign will be. We have the quotient of one positive and one negative integers, so the quotient will be negative.

Do:

 $48\div\left(-6\right)$48÷​(−6) $=$= $-8$−8

#### Practice questions

##### Question 6

Evaluate: $21\div\left(-7\right)$21÷​(7)

##### Question 7

Evaluate: $\frac{-60}{10}$6010

### Outcomes

#### 7.NS.A.2

Multiply and divide integers and other rational numbers.

#### 7.NS.A.2a

Understand that multiplication is extended from fractions to rational numbers by requiring that operations continue to satisfy the properties of operations, particularly the distributive property, leading to products such as (–1)(–1) = 1 and the rules for multiplying signed numbers. Interpret products of rational numbers by describing real-world context.

#### 7.NS.A.2b

Understand that integers can be divided, provided that the divisor is not zero, and every quotient of integers (with non-zero divisor) is a rational number. If p and q are integers, then –(p/q) = (–p)/q = p/(–q). Interpret quotients of rational numbers by describing real-world context.