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9.08 Surface area of spheres and hemispheres

Lesson

Spheres

A sphere is a 3D surface of which all points are equidistant from a fixed point. Half of a sphere is called a hemisphere.

Unlike solids we have seen so far, we cannot unwrap a sphere, get a 2D net and calculate its area.  So the surface area of a sphere is approached in a different way.  Archimedes discovered that a cylinder that circumscribes a sphere, as shown in this picture, has a curved surface area equal to the surface area, S, of the sphere. 

Archimedes showed that the surface area of the lateral surface area of the cylinder, has area $2\pi r\times2r=4\pi r^2$2πr×2r=4πr2 and that this area is the same value for the surface area of a sphere.  

Surface area of a sphere

$\text{Surface Area of a Sphere }=4\pi r^2$Surface Area of a Sphere =4πr2

 

Exploration

In what follows, we will prove that the surface area of a sphere is the same as the lateral surface area of a cylinder with the same radius and a height of $2r$2r, namely $2\pi rh=2\pi r\times2r$2πrh=2πr×2r = $4\pi r^2$4πr2

To see why the areas are the same, first imagine the sphere sitting neatly inside the cylinder. Then imagine cutting both the sphere and cylinder at any height with two closely spaced sections, parallel to the bases of the cylinder. Between these sections is a ring shaped strip of the cylinder's surface and a ring shaped strip of the sphere's surface. The formula for the surface area of a sphere says that these strips have the same area, let's have a look at why.  

The strip of the sphere has a smaller radius but a larger width than the strip of cylinder, and if the strips are narrow, these two factors exactly cancel. The diagram above also shows two right triangles. The long side of the big triangle is a radius of the sphere and the long side of the small triangle is tangent to the sphere, so the triangles meet at a right angle. You can see that the triangles are similar.

This means the ratio of the radii of the two strips $\left(\frac{r}{R}\right)$(rR) is the same as the ratio of the widths of the two strips $\left(\frac{d}{D}\right)$(dD).

That is $\frac{d}{D}=\frac{r}{R}$dD=rR and $Rd=rD$Rd=rD.

So the areas of the strips are equal ($2\pi Rd=2\pi rD$2πRd=2πrD).

Since every strip of the sphere has the same area as the corresponding strip of the cylinder, then the area of the whole sphere is the same as the curved area of the whole cylinder, namely $4\pi r^2$4πr2 .

 

Hemispheres

A hemisphere is a solid that is half of a sphere with one flat, circular side. Using what we learned above, we can develop a formula for the surface area of a hemisphere.

A hemisphere is made up of two surfaces, the first is half of a sphere and the second is the flat, circular side. Hence, we can find the formula as below:

Surface area of a hemisphere

$\text{Surface area of hemisphere}$Surface area of hemisphere

$=$=

$\frac{1}{2}\text{(Surface area of sphere)}+\text{circular face}$12(Surface area of sphere)+circular face

  $=$=

$\frac{1}{2}\times4\pi r^2+\pi r^2$12×4πr2+πr2

  $=$=

$3\pi r^2$3πr2

 

Practice questions

Question 1

Find the surface area of the sphere shown.

Round your answer to two decimal places.

Question 2

Consider the following hemisphere with a radius of $8$8. Find the total surface area.

  1. Round your answer to three decimal places.

Question 3

A ball has a surface area of $A=50.27$A=50.27 mm2. What is its radius?

  1. Round your answer to two decimal places.

Outcomes

G.13

Use surface area and volume of three-dimensional objects to solve practical problems

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