1. Number

Middle Years

Lesson

Let's consider the following situation:

A scuba diver is diving at a depth of $-50$−50 feet. At the same time, a helicopter pilot is flying overhead at $30$30 feet above the surface. Which person is closer to sea level? |

Although the scuba diver is at an altitude much lower than the helicopter, the helicopter pilot is closer to sea level.

When making this comparison, we are considering the **absolute value** of each measurement. The absolute value of a number is the distance from the number to zero on the number line.

The applet below shows the absolute value, or distance from zero for different integers on the number line. Move the point left and right and consider the following questions:

- What do you notice about the absolute value of a positive number?
- What do you notice about the absolute value of a negative number?

We can see that the absolute value of a positive number is the number itself. However, the absolute value of a negative number is its opposite. This is because the distance is always a positive number. This applies to all numbers on the number line!

The mathematical symbol for absolute value is "$\text{| |}$| |". For example, we would read "$\left|-6\right|$|−6|" as "the absolute value of negative six."

Absolute value

The absolute value of a number is its distance from zero on the number line.

The absolute value of a positive number is the number itself.

The absolute value of a negative number is its **opposite**.

For example, $\left|3\right|=3$|3|=3 and $\left|-3\right|=3$|−3|=3.

**Evaluate:** Which of the following are smaller than $\left|-20\right|$|−20|?

A) $-15$−15 B) $\left|-30\right|$|−30| C) $\left|-5\right|$|−5| D) $21$21

**Think**: We need to evaluate each of these terms, then compare them to $\left|-20\right|$|−20|.

**Do**: Let's start by evaluating all the absolute values:

$\left|-20\right|=20$|−20|=20, $\left|-30\right|=30$|−30|=30 and $\left|-5\right|=5$|−5|=5

Which of the four possible answers are smaller than $20$20?

So $\left|-20\right|$|−20| is greater than A) $-15$−15 and C) $\left|-5\right|$|−5|

Consider the number line below to help you answer the following question:

What does the absolute value of $-3$−3 represent?

It represents the distance between $-3$−3 and $0$0.

AIt represents a position $3$3 units away from $0$0 on either side.

BIt represents moving $3$3 units to the right from $0$0 along the number line.

CIt represents moving $3$3 units to the left from $0$0 along the number line.

D

Evaluate $\left|65\right|$|65|

What is the value of $\left|-155\right|$|−155|?